How Political Power Uses Propaganda to Distract the Public: Noam Chomsky – Manufacturing Consent


Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies is a 1989 book by US academic Noam Chomsky concerning political power using propaganda to distort and distract from major issues to maintain confusion and complicity, preventing real democracy from becoming effective. The title of this book borrows a phrase from the writings of Reinhold Niebuhr. Nearly the entire first half of the book is based on Chomsky’s five 1988 Massey Lectures on Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Radio from November 1988 and extends his and Edward S. Herman’s propaganda model to a variety of new situations. The remaining appendices address criticisms of the work and provide additional detail.

As a genre of political thought, parallels exist between Niebuhr’s “necessary illusions” and the “noble lies” of Leo Strauss, “public relations” of Edward Bernays and “myth making” of Niccolò Machiavelli. Likewise, Chomsky’s analyses in Necessary Illusions represent a refocus on the use of these patterns of power, which he implies to underscore the failure of populations – particularly in a representative democracy – to learn from history in this regard. Contents Democracy and the Media Containing the Enemy The Bounds of the Expressible Adjuncts of Government The Utility of Interpretations

Appendix I The Propaganda Model: Some Methodological Considerations On Critical Balance

Appendix II The Containment Doctrine The Red Scare

Appendix III The Sanctity of Borders

Appendix IV The Craft of “Historical Engineering” The Obligation of Silence The Summits The Media and International Opinion Demolishing the Accords

Appendix V The US and Costa Rican Democracy “The Evil Scourge of Terrorism” Hereos and Devils The “Peace Process” in the Middle East The Best Defense La Prensa and its Colleagues “The Courage to Preserve Civil Liberties” The Continuing Struggle


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